Mitigation of Terrorist Threats during Venue Ingress and Egress

Crowds are especially vulnerable to terrorist attacks during events at popular venues, such as stadiums, concert halls, exhibition centres, theatres, nightclubs, shopping malls, theme parks, and festivals. The entry and exit points are particularly at risk due to the predictable timing and increased crowd density at these locations.

Both ingress and egress phases present security challenges, as large groups congregate in areas that often lack comprehensive safety measures. This issue is exacerbated in spaces outside the venue’s direct control. Ensuring safety during these phases is crucial, especially with the added complexities of long queues, ticket checks, and bag searches. Preparedness is key to combating any potential threats, as poorly secured entry and exit points can be seen as ‘soft targets’ by hostile actors.

NPSA has developed new guidance that addresses these security concerns, offering strategies to reduce risks. The key steps include understanding potential threats, identifying vulnerabilities during entry and exit times, mitigating risks, and consistently recording, testing, reviewing, and revising plans and procedures. Factors such as audience profile, venue location, available space, and surrounding landscaping must all be considered when devising a security plan. The NPSA guidance provides valuable pointers for both basic operational changes and more complex security-led design approaches.

This guidance focuses on meticulous planning and preparation to ensure the safety of people visiting venues and attending events, with a particular emphasis on the vulnerable ingress and egress phases.

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Egress phases of venue operations. It subsequently details various strategies for mitigating the related risks. 


Mitigation of terrorist threats at venues during ingress and egress guidance document front cover


The guidance outlines potential vulnerabilities during ingress and egress and then provides a scalable approach to security regimes, from a basic design to more complex solutions. It covers:

  • Crowding during ingress and egress
  • Key components of reducing risk
  • Understanding potential threats
  • Identifying vulnerabilities during ingress and egress
  • Control measures to be considered when looking to reduce risk
  • The importance of recording security processes, testing, reviewing and revising
  • Through an example, shows how control measures may be applied at a venue


The guidance can be applied to any venue where crowds are likely to form, ranging from stadia, concert venues and exhibition centres through to nightclubs, shopping malls and even temporary sites that are set up for short periods such as festivals.